Monday, October 11, 2010

Arignota



Arignota Turner, 1898


Arignota Turner, 1898. The Xyloryctidae of Queensland. Annals of the Queensland Museum 4: 1–32 [4]. Type species: Xylorycta stercorata Lucas, 1893 by monotypy.
Arignota Turner, 1898 [Cryptophasidae]. Fletcher, T. B., 1929, A list of generic names used for Microlepidoptera. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture of India,  11: 1-244 [23].
Arignota Turner, 1898. Diakonoff, 1954, Microlepidoptera of New Guinea. Results of the third Archbold Expedition (American-Netherlands Indian Expedition 1938-1939). Part 4. Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen 2 ser. 50 (1): 1-191 [106].
Arignota Turner. Common, Moths of Australia, Melbourne University Press. 227-230 [229].
Arignota Turner, 1898. Common, in Nielsen, Edwards, & Rangsi, 1996, Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera, 4: i-xiv, 1-529 & CD-ROM [85].
Arignota Turner, 1898. Beccaloni, G. W., Scoble, M. J., Robinson, G. S. & Pitkin, B. (Editors). 2003. The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (LepIndex). World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/lepindex [accessed 7 April 2010].
Arignota Turner, 1898. Edwards, E. D. (2003), Xyloryctinae. Australian Faunal Directory. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/taxa/XYLORYCTINAE [accessed 13 June 2010].

Original description, Turner, 1898:
ARIGNOTA, n.g.
Head with appressed scales; ocelli absent; tongue well-developed. Antennae in ♂ deeply serrated, moderately ciliated (2/3 – 1); basal joint somewhat swollen, without pecten. Labial palpi moderately long, curved, ascending, second joint with appressed scales, slightly rough beneath, terminal joint about half second, smooth, acute. Maxillary palpi very short. Thorax with a dense posterior crest. Abdomen rather stout. Anterior tarsi and tibiae somewhat thickened with scales, middle tibiae rough-haired above, posterior tibiae densely rough-haired above and beneath. Forewings with vein 1 long-furcate towards base, 2 from 3/5, 3 from angle, 3, 4, and 5 closely approximated at base, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to apex, 11 from middle. Hindwings over 1, oblong-ovate, towards base below median and towards inner margin densely clothed with long hairs, 3 and 4 short-stalked, 5 tolerably parallel, 6 and 7 separate but very closely approximated at base, 8 connected with cell near base.
A connecting link between Lichenaula and Maroga, but distinguished from both by the thoracic crest. From Notosara, Meyr., [Depressariidae] it is distinguished by the palpi.

Subsequent description, Diakonoff 1954
Arignota Turner, 1897
Arignota Turner, 1897, Ann. Queensl. Mus., vol. 4, p. 21. Fletcher, Mem. Agric. Ind., Ent., vol. 11, p. 23, 1929.
Head with long, loosely appressed scales, forming a roughish tuft over the face. Ocellus absent. Proboscis absent. Antenna in the female 2/3, serrate, each serration with a minute fascicle of cilia at the apex, or filiform, minutely ciliate; scape moderately elongate, robust, with a small triangular scale-tuft at the apex beneath. Palpus moderately long, ascending, curved only at the base, median segment reaching just above the base of the antenna, or not reaching this; median segment moderately thickened with long smoothly appressed or rather rough scales, loose towards the apex, terminal segment about 1/3 of the median or less, rather robust, acute. Thorax stout, broad, with very long loose hairs (damaged posteriorly; with a .crest ?). Abdomen stout. Anterior tarsus somewhat over 1, not thickened, clothed above with dense, closely appressed long scales, not reaching the apex, median and posterior legs long-hairy above and beneath. Fore wing without scale-tufts, 1b long-furcate, 2 from beyond 4/5, 3 from the angle, 3-5 equidistant, remote, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to the apex, 9 approximated to the stalk, 11 from beyond the middle. Hind wing rather short, semiovate, 1 ¼,  cilia about 1/10, 2 from 3/5, 3 and 4 short-stalked from the angle, 5 gently curved, moderately approximated, 6 and 7 closely approximated at the base, 8 connected with the upper edge of the cell by a very short transverse bar at 1/3 of the cell.
This redescription is based on the characters of the female specimens of the following species [A. decipiens and A. clavatrix], and differs in a few respects from the original description by Turner. These differences are immaterial, in our opinion, and may be caused by sexual dimorphism as the genus is originally described after a male specimen. Our species differ from the genotype, A. stercorata (Lucas) by minute ciliations of the antennae, shorter terminal segment of the palpi (1/3 or less, instead of ½), not thickened anterior tarsi, little approximated veins 3-5 in the fore wing (in stercorata closely approximated), and vein 11 originating from beyond the middle.

Other references
Found in or near rainforest in northern and southern Queensland. (Common, 1990).

Description:
Head:
Thorax:
Abdomen:
Arignota clavatrix, ♀ genitalia (Diakonoff 1954).


Arignota decipiens, ♀ genitalia (Diakonoff 1954).

Immature stages: larva boring in stem tying cut leaves to entrance to bore. Larval foodplant: Elaeocarpus obovatus (Elaeocarpaceae). (Edwards, 2003).

Distribution
New South Wales, Queensland. Papua New Guinea. (Edwards, 2003).

Remarks: The male genitalia and the wing venation differ very little from Cryptophasa irrorata, and it may be that these moths belong in Cryptophasa; at the very least, a close relationship is suggested.
Difference from Cryptophasa is suggested by the thoracic crest, the broader, stronger claspers in the male genitalia, and the general appearance.

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Arignota stercorata Lucas


Arignota stercorata♂ - Qld, Mossman Gorge, 9. Dec. 1967, R. Dobson leg. (ANIC). [AMO].


Arignota stercorata♀ - Qld, Lower Slopes of Mt Bellenden Ker Lat. 17' 16'' S Long. 145' 53'' E, 21. Oct. 1981, E.D. Edwards leg. (ANIC). [AMO].


Arignota stercorata♂ - Qld, 5 km S of the Crater, near Atherton, 3. Oct. 1987, J.C. Keast L.S. Willan leg. (LWC). [AMO].


Arignota stercorata, D. Rentz, Kuranda.


Xylorycta stercorata, T.P. Lucas, 1894, Descriptions of new Australian Lepidoptera, with additional localities for known species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 8: 133–166 [164]. Syntype(s) SAMA unknown number ♂, Brisbane, Qld.
Arignota stercorata, Lucas. Turner, 1898, The Xyloryctidae of Queensland. Annals of the Queensland Museum 4: 1–32 [22].
Arignota stercorata Lucas [Cryptophasidae]. Fletcher, T. B., 1929, A list of generic names used for Microlepidoptera. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture of India,  11: 1-244 [23].
Arignota stercorata (Lucas, 1894). Diakonoff, 1954, Microlepidoptera of New Guinea. Results of the third Archbold Expedition (American-Netherlands Indian Expedition 1938-1939). Part 4. Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen 2 ser. 50 (1): 1-191 [106].
Arignota stercorata, Lucas. Common, 1990, Moths of Australia, Melbourne University Press, 227-230 (229).
Arignota stercorata (T.P. Lucas, 1894). Common, in Nielsen, Edwards, & Rangsi, 1996, Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera, 4: i-xiv, 1-529 & CD-ROM [85].
Arignota stercoraria [sic] Lucas. Beccaloni, G. W., Scoble, M. J., Robinson, G. S. & Pitkin, B. (Editors). 2003. The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (LepIndex). World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/lepindex [accessed 7 April 2010].
Arignota stercorata (T.P. Lucas, 1894). Edwards, E. D. (2003), Xyloryctinae. Australian Faunal Directory. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/taxa/XYLORYCTINAE [accessed 13 June 2010].

Original description, T.P. Lucas 1894:
Xylorycta stercorata, sp. nov.
30 mm. Head and palpi white. Antennae white at base, becoming greyer toward apex. Thorax white, with a conspicuous dorsal patch of fuscous, varied by shades of purplish-grey, white and fuscous and spreading laterally posteriorly. Abdomen white, 2nd segment reddish-fuscous and loosely covered with white hairs. Legs white. Forewings elongate, gently dilate, costa gently rounded, hindmargin nearly straight; white, with a number of pale leaden-coloured spots imitative of birds' droppings; an acute spot in centre and a splash tinted with ferrous in inner angle of base; a triangular blotch at 3/5 costa; five round spots, 1st near costa at 1/8, 2nd obliquely to 1st and posterior, 3rd before middle in centre of wing, 4th at ¾ of wing, 5th in a line with 4th but nearer to costa; two sharp dots arranged diagonally with 1st and 2nd spots; four dots forming a rhomboid figure at 3/5; the two hinder ones tinted with purplish-black; an obscure dot on hindmargin at 5/6, and another half-way between this and apex; three rows of fine hindmarginal spots: cilia white. Hindwings and cilia white.
Brisbane; bred from Elaeocarpus obovatus: also one specimen at light.
As this species rests closed up on the leaf, it looks exactly like a bird's dropping.

Subsequent description, Turner 1898:
Arignota stercorata, Lucas. (Xylorycta stercorata, Lucas, Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 1893, 164.) Male, 28-35mm. Head, face, and palpi creamy-whitish. Antennae white, gradually becoming fuscous towards apex. Thorax creamy-white, faintly reddish-tinged; posteriorly fuscous; a small slaty-grey spot on each shoulder. Abdomen whitish; second segment reddish-brown, over-lapped by long whitish hairs from first segment; third, fourth and fifth segments edged with reddish-brown. Legs whitish; anterior tibiae and tarsi barred anteriorly by fuscous spots. Forewings oblong, costa rather strongly arched, apex obtuse,  hindmargin not oblique, rounded towards anal angle; creamy-whitish, very faintly reddish-tinged; with slaty-grey spots; first faintly marked at base of costa; second beneath costa near base; third rather larger resting on fold at 1/6; fourth triangular at costa at 3/5 (this sometimes contains a fuscous dot); fifth on fold before middle; four spots in  outer half of disc ranged in a circle, sometimes partly confluent; within  the circle are two blackish dots placed transversely in disc at 3/5; a tenth spot on inner margin before anal angle; and an eleventh in disc at 5/6; a series of minute blackish dots parallel to hindmargin; an interrupted reddish-brown line along hindmargin; cilia reddish-brown, with a pale line at base and another at 1/3. Hindwings whitish; cilia whitish, at apex fuscous.
Brisbane: several specimens from larvae discovered by Mr. Illidge living in the stems of Elaeocarpus obovatus, dragging in leaves for food.

Other references:

Fig 23.13: Common, 1990
The same food plant [Elaeocarpus obovatus] is used by A. stercorata (Luc.) (Pl 24.2, Fig 23.13), the only species in the genus Arignota Turner. The larva bores in the stem, feeding on leaves it cuts off and attaches at the entrance to its tunnel. This species is found in or near rainforest in northern and southern Australia. (Common, 1990).

Pl 24.2: Common, 1990

Diagnosis: moderately large white moths with a circular thoracic crest of a mixture of darker fuscous colours.

Arignota stercorata, ♂, compound eye and antennal scape.


Arignota stercorata, ♀, head.

Description:
Head: Vestiture mainly smooth, densely packed, white, long narrow lamellar scales, directed forward on the frons, more erect above the antennal scape and dorsad of the compound eye towards the centre of the vertex, where there may be a slight crest. Ocelli absent. Haustellum present, with basal scaling. Antennal scape without pecten, densely thickened with narrow lamellar scales, flattened, concave beneath; flagllomere in the male dorsally smooth, ventrally serrate with moderate cilia ( ½ ) in clumps; in the female the flagellomere is dorsally and ventrally smooth, with short ( ¼ ) ventral ciliations. Labial palpus moderately long, recurved over head, second joint thickened with appressed scales, slightly rough beneath, white, with a dark marking adjacent to the eye, third joint 0.5 second, smooth, acute.
Thorax: Vestiture consists of a collar of long narrow lamellar scales next to the head, with broader, dense lamellar scales dorsally; a roughly circular patch of very broad, variously dark and light scales creates a dorsal thoracic crest; beneath, the thorax is densely clad with fine hairlike scales.

Arignota stercorata, wing venation


Abdomen:
Male genitalia: uncus dorsally deeply divided into two lobes, fusing apically; apex a roundpointed projection, dorsally curved; ventral dentate process of uncus downturned at 90º to this projection, acute. Gnathos with two arms joined at apex, fused to uncus, apex large, upturned, rounded beneath, ending in two rounded points with slight concavity between. Tegumen broad, sides straight. Margins and a lateral dorsal band slightly sclerotised, pedunculi rounded. Vinculum with sclerotised margins, less so towards base, saccus pointed at base. Juxta u-shaped. Valva long, apically upturned; costa of valva sinuate, with two gentle concavities; apex rounded; supravalva setose throughout, although bare at base, beneath clasper; longer setae towards proximal end. Sclerotised band on valva between basis valvae and supravalva. Lower margin of supravalva straight; rounded at apex and towards base. Sacculus broad, oblong-ovate, tapering towards base, apex an obtuse flap, overlapping base of supravalva, tapering downwards towards sacculus. Lower saccular margin straight, very slightly sinuate, with a basal rounded convexity, incurved at apex. Claspers large, strongly formed, incurved, barely stalked, growing out of inner saccular margin, with sinus beneath. Inner margin of clasper ends in a small rounded process; outer margin much produced into a sharp incurved point. Dense band of fine setae mesally along of clasper. Anellus long, tapering, tubular. Phallus long, tapering, gently curved towards proximal end, vesica with a terminal hook.




Arignota stercorata, ♂ genitalia, K-0004, Kuranda, 16-31 May 2009, collected by David Rentz.



Arignota stercorata, phallus, K-0004, Kuranda, 16-31 May 2009, collected by David Rentz.


Arignota stercorata, ♀ genitalia, K-0101, Kuranda, 1-15 October 2009, collected by David Rentz.


Food plants: Elaeocarpus obovatus, Elaeocarpaceae, Hard Quandong.
Flight period: August, September, October, November, December, March, May.
Distribution: N.S.W., Qld. Endemic. (Edwards, 2003).

Remarks:

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