Sunday, November 17, 2013












XYLORYCTINE MOTHS OF AUSTRALIA

Genera and Species

A review of published information about this group of moths, 
with original additional material

Revision III, 2013


Ian McMillan

Imbil. Queensland







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Monday, October 11, 2010

Araeostoma

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Araeostoma Turner, 1917


Araeostoma Turner, 1917, Lepidopterological gleanings, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland  29: 70–106 [97]. Type species: Araeostoma aenicta Turner, 1917 by monotypy.
Araeostoma Turner, 1917 [Cryptophasidae]. Fletcher, T. B., 1929, A list of generic names used for Microlepidoptera. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture of India,  11: 1-244 [20].
Araeostoma Turner, 1917. Common, in Nielsen, Edwards, & Rangsi, 1996, Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera, 4: i-xiv, 1-529 & CD-ROM [85].
Araeostoma Turner, 1917. Beccaloni, G. W., Scoble, M. J., Robinson, G. S. & Pitkin, B. (Editors). 2003. The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (LepIndex). World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/lepindex [accessed 7 April 2010].
Araeostoma Turner, 1917. Edwards, E. D. (2003), Xyloryctinae. Australian Faunal Directory. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/taxa/XYLORYCTINAE [accessed 13 June 2010].

Original description, Turner, 1917
Gen. Araeostoma nov.
αραιοσομος, with weak mouth.
Tongue weakly developed, nearly obsolete. Labial palpi short, not reaching base of antennae, smooth, slender. Antennae of ♂ unipectinate. Thorax smooth. Posterior tibiae rough-haired. Forewings with 2 from 2/3, 7 and 8 long-stalked, 7 to apex. Hindwings with 3 and 4 connate, 6 and 7 connate. [Forewings with CuA2 from 2/3, R5 and R4 long-stalked, R5 to apex. Hindwings with Cu1 and M3 connate, M1 and Rs connate.]
Distinguished from Plectophila by the nearly obsolete tongue, short palpi, and peculiar male antennae. In general facies the following species [Araeostoma aenicta] nearly resembles Plectophila poliochyta Turn. [Clerarcha poliochyta].

Description:
Head:
Thorax:
Abdomen:

Immature stages:

Distribution: New South Wales, Queensland. Endemic. (Edwards, 2003).

Remarks:

_____________________________________

Araeostoma aenicta Turner

Araeostoma aenicta♀, - NSW, Windang, 29. Sep. 1966, V.J. Robinson leg. (LWC). [AMO].


Araeostoma aenicta - NSW, Windang, 9. Sep. 1969, V.J. Robinson leg. (LWC). [AMO].


Araeostoma aenicta Turner, 1917. Lepidopterological gleanings. Proc. R. Soc. Qld 29: 70–106 [98]. Syntypes: ANIC 1 ♂, 3♀, Brisbane, Qld.
Araeostoma aenicta Turner, 1917 [Cryptophasidae]. Fletcher, T. B., 1929, A list of generic names used for Microlepidoptera. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture of India,  11: 1-244 [20].
Araeostoma aenicta Turner, 1917. Common, in Nielsen, Edwards, & Rangsi, 1996, Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera, 4: i-xiv, 1-529 & CD-ROM [87].
Araeostoma aenicta Turner, 1917. Beccaloni, G. W., Scoble, M. J., Robinson, G. S. & Pitkin, B. (Editors). 2003. The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (LepIndex). World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/lepindex [accessed 5 May 2010].
Araeostoma aenicta Turner, 1917. Edwards, E. D. (2003), Xyloryctinae. Australian Faunal Directory. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/taxa/XYLORYCTINAE [accessed 13 June 2010].

Original description, Turner 1917
Araeostoma aenicta n. sp.
αινιχτος, obscure
♂ ♀ 17-28. head and thorax with some whitish scales. Palpi short, slender, not reaching base of antennae; terminal joint in ♂ ½, in ♀ ¼; fuscous mixed with whitish in ♀. Antennae fuscous, in ♀ with obscure whitish annulations, pectinations in ♂  3. Abdomen fuscous, apices of segments on dorsum reddish-ochreous on sides and lower surface whitish in ♀. Legs fuscous mixed with ochreous-whitish; posterior pair mostly ochreous-whitish. Forewings elongate-oval, costa strongly arched, apex rounded, termen obliquely rounded; fuscous with patchy whitish irroration; a dark fuscous discal dot above middle at 1/3, a second obliquely elongate before 2/3; posterior third of costal edge whitish with four dark fuscous dots; a fine crenulate whitish line just before termen; cilia fuscous, in ♀ with some whitish admixture. Hindwings and cilia fuscous.
Q. Brisbane in September; four specimens (1 ♂, 3 ♀) received from Mr. R. Illidge. 

Diagnosis: Small moths distinguished by the unipectinate antennae of the male.
Description:
Head:
Thorax:
Abdomen:
Food plants:
Flight period: September.
Distribution: New South Wales, Queensland. Endemic. (Edwards, 2003).

Remarks: Specimens in the Australian Museum and the Queensland Museum are lighter in colour than those in the ANIC.




Arignota



Arignota Turner, 1898


Arignota Turner, 1898. The Xyloryctidae of Queensland. Annals of the Queensland Museum 4: 1–32 [4]. Type species: Xylorycta stercorata Lucas, 1893 by monotypy.
Arignota Turner, 1898 [Cryptophasidae]. Fletcher, T. B., 1929, A list of generic names used for Microlepidoptera. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture of India,  11: 1-244 [23].
Arignota Turner, 1898. Diakonoff, 1954, Microlepidoptera of New Guinea. Results of the third Archbold Expedition (American-Netherlands Indian Expedition 1938-1939). Part 4. Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen 2 ser. 50 (1): 1-191 [106].
Arignota Turner. Common, Moths of Australia, Melbourne University Press. 227-230 [229].
Arignota Turner, 1898. Common, in Nielsen, Edwards, & Rangsi, 1996, Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera, 4: i-xiv, 1-529 & CD-ROM [85].
Arignota Turner, 1898. Beccaloni, G. W., Scoble, M. J., Robinson, G. S. & Pitkin, B. (Editors). 2003. The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (LepIndex). World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/lepindex [accessed 7 April 2010].
Arignota Turner, 1898. Edwards, E. D. (2003), Xyloryctinae. Australian Faunal Directory. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/taxa/XYLORYCTINAE [accessed 13 June 2010].

Original description, Turner, 1898:
ARIGNOTA, n.g.
Head with appressed scales; ocelli absent; tongue well-developed. Antennae in ♂ deeply serrated, moderately ciliated (2/3 – 1); basal joint somewhat swollen, without pecten. Labial palpi moderately long, curved, ascending, second joint with appressed scales, slightly rough beneath, terminal joint about half second, smooth, acute. Maxillary palpi very short. Thorax with a dense posterior crest. Abdomen rather stout. Anterior tarsi and tibiae somewhat thickened with scales, middle tibiae rough-haired above, posterior tibiae densely rough-haired above and beneath. Forewings with vein 1 long-furcate towards base, 2 from 3/5, 3 from angle, 3, 4, and 5 closely approximated at base, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to apex, 11 from middle. Hindwings over 1, oblong-ovate, towards base below median and towards inner margin densely clothed with long hairs, 3 and 4 short-stalked, 5 tolerably parallel, 6 and 7 separate but very closely approximated at base, 8 connected with cell near base.
A connecting link between Lichenaula and Maroga, but distinguished from both by the thoracic crest. From Notosara, Meyr., [Depressariidae] it is distinguished by the palpi.

Subsequent description, Diakonoff 1954
Arignota Turner, 1897
Arignota Turner, 1897, Ann. Queensl. Mus., vol. 4, p. 21. Fletcher, Mem. Agric. Ind., Ent., vol. 11, p. 23, 1929.
Head with long, loosely appressed scales, forming a roughish tuft over the face. Ocellus absent. Proboscis absent. Antenna in the female 2/3, serrate, each serration with a minute fascicle of cilia at the apex, or filiform, minutely ciliate; scape moderately elongate, robust, with a small triangular scale-tuft at the apex beneath. Palpus moderately long, ascending, curved only at the base, median segment reaching just above the base of the antenna, or not reaching this; median segment moderately thickened with long smoothly appressed or rather rough scales, loose towards the apex, terminal segment about 1/3 of the median or less, rather robust, acute. Thorax stout, broad, with very long loose hairs (damaged posteriorly; with a .crest ?). Abdomen stout. Anterior tarsus somewhat over 1, not thickened, clothed above with dense, closely appressed long scales, not reaching the apex, median and posterior legs long-hairy above and beneath. Fore wing without scale-tufts, 1b long-furcate, 2 from beyond 4/5, 3 from the angle, 3-5 equidistant, remote, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to the apex, 9 approximated to the stalk, 11 from beyond the middle. Hind wing rather short, semiovate, 1 ¼,  cilia about 1/10, 2 from 3/5, 3 and 4 short-stalked from the angle, 5 gently curved, moderately approximated, 6 and 7 closely approximated at the base, 8 connected with the upper edge of the cell by a very short transverse bar at 1/3 of the cell.
This redescription is based on the characters of the female specimens of the following species [A. decipiens and A. clavatrix], and differs in a few respects from the original description by Turner. These differences are immaterial, in our opinion, and may be caused by sexual dimorphism as the genus is originally described after a male specimen. Our species differ from the genotype, A. stercorata (Lucas) by minute ciliations of the antennae, shorter terminal segment of the palpi (1/3 or less, instead of ½), not thickened anterior tarsi, little approximated veins 3-5 in the fore wing (in stercorata closely approximated), and vein 11 originating from beyond the middle.

Other references
Found in or near rainforest in northern and southern Queensland. (Common, 1990).

Description:
Head:
Thorax:
Abdomen:
Arignota clavatrix, ♀ genitalia (Diakonoff 1954).


Arignota decipiens, ♀ genitalia (Diakonoff 1954).

Immature stages: larva boring in stem tying cut leaves to entrance to bore. Larval foodplant: Elaeocarpus obovatus (Elaeocarpaceae). (Edwards, 2003).

Distribution
New South Wales, Queensland. Papua New Guinea. (Edwards, 2003).

Remarks: The male genitalia and the wing venation differ very little from Cryptophasa irrorata, and it may be that these moths belong in Cryptophasa; at the very least, a close relationship is suggested.
Difference from Cryptophasa is suggested by the thoracic crest, the broader, stronger claspers in the male genitalia, and the general appearance.

_____________________________________

Arignota stercorata Lucas


Arignota stercorata♂ - Qld, Mossman Gorge, 9. Dec. 1967, R. Dobson leg. (ANIC). [AMO].


Arignota stercorata♀ - Qld, Lower Slopes of Mt Bellenden Ker Lat. 17' 16'' S Long. 145' 53'' E, 21. Oct. 1981, E.D. Edwards leg. (ANIC). [AMO].


Arignota stercorata♂ - Qld, 5 km S of the Crater, near Atherton, 3. Oct. 1987, J.C. Keast L.S. Willan leg. (LWC). [AMO].


Arignota stercorata, D. Rentz, Kuranda.


Xylorycta stercorata, T.P. Lucas, 1894, Descriptions of new Australian Lepidoptera, with additional localities for known species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 8: 133–166 [164]. Syntype(s) SAMA unknown number ♂, Brisbane, Qld.
Arignota stercorata, Lucas. Turner, 1898, The Xyloryctidae of Queensland. Annals of the Queensland Museum 4: 1–32 [22].
Arignota stercorata Lucas [Cryptophasidae]. Fletcher, T. B., 1929, A list of generic names used for Microlepidoptera. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture of India,  11: 1-244 [23].
Arignota stercorata (Lucas, 1894). Diakonoff, 1954, Microlepidoptera of New Guinea. Results of the third Archbold Expedition (American-Netherlands Indian Expedition 1938-1939). Part 4. Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen 2 ser. 50 (1): 1-191 [106].
Arignota stercorata, Lucas. Common, 1990, Moths of Australia, Melbourne University Press, 227-230 (229).
Arignota stercorata (T.P. Lucas, 1894). Common, in Nielsen, Edwards, & Rangsi, 1996, Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera, 4: i-xiv, 1-529 & CD-ROM [85].
Arignota stercoraria [sic] Lucas. Beccaloni, G. W., Scoble, M. J., Robinson, G. S. & Pitkin, B. (Editors). 2003. The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (LepIndex). World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/lepindex [accessed 7 April 2010].
Arignota stercorata (T.P. Lucas, 1894). Edwards, E. D. (2003), Xyloryctinae. Australian Faunal Directory. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/taxa/XYLORYCTINAE [accessed 13 June 2010].

Original description, T.P. Lucas 1894:
Xylorycta stercorata, sp. nov.
30 mm. Head and palpi white. Antennae white at base, becoming greyer toward apex. Thorax white, with a conspicuous dorsal patch of fuscous, varied by shades of purplish-grey, white and fuscous and spreading laterally posteriorly. Abdomen white, 2nd segment reddish-fuscous and loosely covered with white hairs. Legs white. Forewings elongate, gently dilate, costa gently rounded, hindmargin nearly straight; white, with a number of pale leaden-coloured spots imitative of birds' droppings; an acute spot in centre and a splash tinted with ferrous in inner angle of base; a triangular blotch at 3/5 costa; five round spots, 1st near costa at 1/8, 2nd obliquely to 1st and posterior, 3rd before middle in centre of wing, 4th at ¾ of wing, 5th in a line with 4th but nearer to costa; two sharp dots arranged diagonally with 1st and 2nd spots; four dots forming a rhomboid figure at 3/5; the two hinder ones tinted with purplish-black; an obscure dot on hindmargin at 5/6, and another half-way between this and apex; three rows of fine hindmarginal spots: cilia white. Hindwings and cilia white.
Brisbane; bred from Elaeocarpus obovatus: also one specimen at light.
As this species rests closed up on the leaf, it looks exactly like a bird's dropping.

Subsequent description, Turner 1898:
Arignota stercorata, Lucas. (Xylorycta stercorata, Lucas, Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 1893, 164.) Male, 28-35mm. Head, face, and palpi creamy-whitish. Antennae white, gradually becoming fuscous towards apex. Thorax creamy-white, faintly reddish-tinged; posteriorly fuscous; a small slaty-grey spot on each shoulder. Abdomen whitish; second segment reddish-brown, over-lapped by long whitish hairs from first segment; third, fourth and fifth segments edged with reddish-brown. Legs whitish; anterior tibiae and tarsi barred anteriorly by fuscous spots. Forewings oblong, costa rather strongly arched, apex obtuse,  hindmargin not oblique, rounded towards anal angle; creamy-whitish, very faintly reddish-tinged; with slaty-grey spots; first faintly marked at base of costa; second beneath costa near base; third rather larger resting on fold at 1/6; fourth triangular at costa at 3/5 (this sometimes contains a fuscous dot); fifth on fold before middle; four spots in  outer half of disc ranged in a circle, sometimes partly confluent; within  the circle are two blackish dots placed transversely in disc at 3/5; a tenth spot on inner margin before anal angle; and an eleventh in disc at 5/6; a series of minute blackish dots parallel to hindmargin; an interrupted reddish-brown line along hindmargin; cilia reddish-brown, with a pale line at base and another at 1/3. Hindwings whitish; cilia whitish, at apex fuscous.
Brisbane: several specimens from larvae discovered by Mr. Illidge living in the stems of Elaeocarpus obovatus, dragging in leaves for food.

Other references:

Fig 23.13: Common, 1990
The same food plant [Elaeocarpus obovatus] is used by A. stercorata (Luc.) (Pl 24.2, Fig 23.13), the only species in the genus Arignota Turner. The larva bores in the stem, feeding on leaves it cuts off and attaches at the entrance to its tunnel. This species is found in or near rainforest in northern and southern Australia. (Common, 1990).

Pl 24.2: Common, 1990

Diagnosis: moderately large white moths with a circular thoracic crest of a mixture of darker fuscous colours.

Arignota stercorata, ♂, compound eye and antennal scape.


Arignota stercorata, ♀, head.

Description:
Head: Vestiture mainly smooth, densely packed, white, long narrow lamellar scales, directed forward on the frons, more erect above the antennal scape and dorsad of the compound eye towards the centre of the vertex, where there may be a slight crest. Ocelli absent. Haustellum present, with basal scaling. Antennal scape without pecten, densely thickened with narrow lamellar scales, flattened, concave beneath; flagllomere in the male dorsally smooth, ventrally serrate with moderate cilia ( ½ ) in clumps; in the female the flagellomere is dorsally and ventrally smooth, with short ( ¼ ) ventral ciliations. Labial palpus moderately long, recurved over head, second joint thickened with appressed scales, slightly rough beneath, white, with a dark marking adjacent to the eye, third joint 0.5 second, smooth, acute.
Thorax: Vestiture consists of a collar of long narrow lamellar scales next to the head, with broader, dense lamellar scales dorsally; a roughly circular patch of very broad, variously dark and light scales creates a dorsal thoracic crest; beneath, the thorax is densely clad with fine hairlike scales.

Arignota stercorata, wing venation


Abdomen:
Male genitalia: uncus dorsally deeply divided into two lobes, fusing apically; apex a roundpointed projection, dorsally curved; ventral dentate process of uncus downturned at 90º to this projection, acute. Gnathos with two arms joined at apex, fused to uncus, apex large, upturned, rounded beneath, ending in two rounded points with slight concavity between. Tegumen broad, sides straight. Margins and a lateral dorsal band slightly sclerotised, pedunculi rounded. Vinculum with sclerotised margins, less so towards base, saccus pointed at base. Juxta u-shaped. Valva long, apically upturned; costa of valva sinuate, with two gentle concavities; apex rounded; supravalva setose throughout, although bare at base, beneath clasper; longer setae towards proximal end. Sclerotised band on valva between basis valvae and supravalva. Lower margin of supravalva straight; rounded at apex and towards base. Sacculus broad, oblong-ovate, tapering towards base, apex an obtuse flap, overlapping base of supravalva, tapering downwards towards sacculus. Lower saccular margin straight, very slightly sinuate, with a basal rounded convexity, incurved at apex. Claspers large, strongly formed, incurved, barely stalked, growing out of inner saccular margin, with sinus beneath. Inner margin of clasper ends in a small rounded process; outer margin much produced into a sharp incurved point. Dense band of fine setae mesally along of clasper. Anellus long, tapering, tubular. Phallus long, tapering, gently curved towards proximal end, vesica with a terminal hook.




Arignota stercorata, ♂ genitalia, K-0004, Kuranda, 16-31 May 2009, collected by David Rentz.



Arignota stercorata, phallus, K-0004, Kuranda, 16-31 May 2009, collected by David Rentz.


Arignota stercorata, ♀ genitalia, K-0101, Kuranda, 1-15 October 2009, collected by David Rentz.


Food plants: Elaeocarpus obovatus, Elaeocarpaceae, Hard Quandong.
Flight period: August, September, October, November, December, March, May.
Distribution: N.S.W., Qld. Endemic. (Edwards, 2003).

Remarks:

_____________________________________


Athrotaxivora

Athrotaxivora McQuillan, 1998

Athrotaxivora McQuillan, 1998, Athrotaxivora tasmanica gen. & sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea). An unusual moth associated with King William pine (Athrotaxis selaginoides D. Don., Taxodiaceae) in Tasmanian montane rainforests. Australian Journal of Entomology 37: 206–213 [206]. Type species: Athrotaxivora tasmanica McQuillan, 1998 by original designation.
Athrotaxivora McQuillan, 1998. Hoare, R. J. B. 2005. Hierodoris (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Oecophoridae), and overview of Oecophoridae. Fauna of New Zealand 54, 1-102 (14).
Athrotaxivora McQuillan, 1998. Edwards, E. D. (2003), Xyloryctinae. Australian Faunal Directory. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/taxa/XYLORYCTINAE [accessed 13 April 2011].

Original description, McQuillan 1998
Head (Fig. 3): cuticle melanised. Eyes large, interocular index 1.6. Ocelli and chaetosemata absent. Occiput with erect long, narrow lamellar scales. Frons with slender lamellar scales. Labial palpi long, recurved, second segment extending much beyond base of antennae, 2.2x height of eye, slender with appressed scales, anterior scales slightly roughened, apical segment about 0.6 x length of second, slender, with appressed scales, apex acute. Antenna (Figs 4,5) about two-thirds length of forewings, filiform, ciliations in male short (0.7x diameter of flagellum) and very short in female (0. 1x), scape without pecten, flagellum of approximately 50 segments. Proboscis present, coiled, dorsally scaled on proximal twothirds. Maxillary palp small, folded over base of proboscis.Thorax: Smooth-scaled; forelegs not dilated with scales, fore tibia with epiphysis; mid tibia smoothscaled; hind tibia with slender spreading scales mid dorsally.
Wings (Fig. 6): forewing index 0.28-0.30, elongate, fairly narrow, costa gently arched, apex rather acute, termen oblique, tornus broadly rounded; R4 and R5 stalked, R5 to apex, M2 arising nearer to M3 than to M1. M3 almost connate with CuA1 at base, CuA1 from lower angle of cell, curved in proximal half, CuA2 nearly straight from about three-fourths of cell.Hindwing index 0.40 - 0.42, elongate-ovate, slightly broader than forewing (1.1-1.2), scale fringe at anal angle 0.5 width of hindwing, frenulum in female with two bristles; R5 and M1 subparallel in proximal half, slightly divergent distally, M2 arising nearer to M3 than to M1, M3 and CuA1 connate from lower angle of cell, CuA2 from well before lower angle of cell, 1A + 2A straight, 3A present. 


Athrotaxivora, fig, 6, wing venation (McQuillan, 1998) 
Abdomen: Apodemes of sternum A2 of tineid type. Terga of A3-A8 with scIerotised dorsal setae (spines).
Male genitalia (Figs 7, 8): uncus well developed, narrow, dorsoventrally flattened, slightly sinuate in lateral view. Gnathos subequal in length to uncus, with slender arms articulated with the tegumen and united distally to form a long unadorned process with subacute apex. Valva long, rather evenly scIerotised, broadly rounded distally; inner surface with long dense setae, and a pulvinus near base; sacculus well defined, very short (about one-quarter length of valva) with prominent slender distal process with acute apex. Juxta with lateral lobes small. Aedeagus simple, curved, without coecum penis; vesica with large cornutus comprising a dorsoventrally flattened, transversely arched scIerite terminating in an apically acute spine.

 

Athrotaxivora, fig. 7,  genitalia (McQuillan, 1998) 


Athrotaxivora, fig. 8,  genitalia, dorsal view (McQuillan, 1998) 

Female genitalia (Fig. 9): abdominal segments 8-10 not unusually extensible, apophyses fairly short, apophyses posteriores 1.2-1.3 x length of apophyses anteriores, which are not forked posteriorly. Papillae anales large and broad, apices rounded, setiferous, especially dorsally. Ostium bursae in shallow depression in membrane between S7 and S8. Ductus bursae with short colliculum, anteriorly gradually broadening, not coiled. Ductus seminalis close to colliculum. Corpus bursae small, globular, without internal microtrichia; signum a small scobinate plate located centrally.

 

Athrotaxivora, fig 9, genitalia, (McQuillan, 1998) 

Immature stages.Larva (Figs 10-14,19): head (Fig. 11) hypognathous, cranium smooth to weakly tessellated, with six steinmata on each side, stemma 1 largest, stem mata 3 arid 4 contiguous. Spinneret long (Fig. 12). Mandibles without teeth, cutting edge a stout blade (Fig. 13).
Prothoracic shield only lightly pigmented; three prespiracular L setae present on a pigmented pinaculum, L1 ventrolateral of L2. Spiracle large, oval, separate from pinaculum. SV group bisetose. On mesothorax, D I and D2 in a vertical line on same strongly pigmented , pinaculum; SDI and SD2 ·on separate smaner and paler pinacula; L2 absent, Ll and L3 on separate pinacula; SV unisetose. Metathorax as for mesothorax but SOl and SD2 on a single pinaculum; L2 present, on same pinaculum as L1.Pinacula on abdomen pigmented, setae fine, pigmented pale fuscous. Spiracles on A 1-A 7 very small and subequal, about 0.3 x diameter of large spiracle on A8. DI and 02 on AI-A8 are obliquely placed, with DJ anterior to 02. On AI-A7, SDI is on a large ring-likepinaculum anterodorsal of the spiracle; S02 is absent as a seta. On AI- A8, Ll and L2 are on the same pinaculum, and oblique; L3 is widely separate and posteroventral of Ll and L2. On A8, the pinaculum of L3 is smaller. On A9, setae DI and D2 on separate pinacula; SOl represented by a socket devoid of a seta on a separate smaller pinaculum ventral of Dl and 02. SD2 absent on A9. Ll and L2 close together on one pinaculum, L3 on a separate remote pinaculum. Glabrous dorsal plate on A9 absent. On A I-A6, SV is trisetose; on A 7, SV is bisetose. SV unisetose on A8 and A9. Secondary SV setae absent.
Ventral prolegs on A3 to A6 small; crochets mostly biordinal in an ellipse; crochets of AIO biordinal, in a broad arc. Anal prolegs with nine setae each. Suranal plate weakly sclerotised and bluntly rounded, with eight setae.


Athrotaxivora, fig, 11, chaetotaxy (McQuillan, 1998) 

Pupa (Figs 15-17): pupa elongate, cylindrical, moderately sclerotised; setae long and conspicuous. Head rounded anteriorly, a pair of long setae on crown, a pair on upper part of frons, and a lateral pair near posterior margin of eye. Maxillary palpi developed. Fore femora slightly exposed. Antennae well exceeding wingtips, fused distally except near apex. Pronotum well sclerotised dorsally, rugose and finely pitted, with six long setae in a transverse line. Mesothorax and metathorax relatively smooth, with six long setae arranged in a shallow V-shape anteriorly. Abdomen with pro leg scars visible on A5 and A6. Spiracles prominent, especially on A4- A8. Dorsal anterior margin of A5-A8 with transversepolygonal sculpturing. D setae well developed on AI-A8, arranged in straight lines, A2 has a single spiracular seta, but A3-A8 have three setae (one above, two below the spiracle). A single lateral seta on A4-A9. SV setae as follows: three on A5 and A6, two onA7 and one on A8. Cremaster hardly developed, bluntly rounded, rugose, sculpted with low ridges. Ten hooked cremastral setae present, rather short, arranged as a row of six along the posterior margin with two lateral subapical setae on each side.



Athrotaxivora, fig 15-17, pupa (McQuillan, 1998)

Other references

The following Australian genera are tentatively assigned to the Hierodoris group: Scieropepla (14 described species,
including 1, S. typhicola Meyrick, shared with New Zealand), Nemotyla (1 Tasmanian alpine species, N. oribates Nielsen, McQuillan & Common) and Athrotaxivora (1 Tasmanian species, A. tasmanica McQuillan). The inclusion of Scieropepla and Nemotyla is based on their position in Kaila’s (2004) cladogram, where together with Izatha + Phaeosaces they form a monophyletic group basal to the core Xyloryctinae + Blastobasinae. Athrotaxivora was provisionally associated with Xyloryctinae by McQuillan (1998), who noted however that it lacked characters of the core Xyloryctinae. In characters illustrated by McQuillan (loc. cit.) it matches the diagnosis of the Hierodoris group given here. (Hoare, 1995).

Description: see original description, above.
Head:
Thorax:
Abdomen:

Immature stages: Larva webbing leaves in terminal branchlets. Larval foodplant: Athrotaxis selaginoides (Taxodiaceae). (Edwards, 2003).

Distribution: Tasmania. Endemic. (Edwards, 2003).

Remarks:

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Constituent species

Athrotaxivora tasmanica McQuillan, 1998


Athrotaxivora tasmanica McQuillan, 1998

Athrotaxivora tasmanica McQuillan, 1998, Athrotaxivora tasmanica gen. & sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea). An unusual moth associated with King William pine (Athrotaxis selaginoides D. Don., Taxodiaceae) in Tasmanian montane rainforests. Australian Journal of Entomology 37: 206–213 [209]. Holotype ANIC ♂, Weindorfers Forest, Cradle Valley, Tasmania.
Athrotaxivora tasmanica McQuillan, 1998. Hoare, R. J. B. 2005. Hierodoris (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Oecophoridae), and overview of Oecophoridae. Fauna of New Zealand 54, 1-102 (14).
Athrotaxivora tasmanica McQuillan, 1998. Edwards, E. D. (2003), Xyloryctinae. Australian Faunal Directory. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/taxa/XYLORYCTINAE [accessed 13 April 2011].

 Original description, McQuillan 1998 
Types. Tasmania: holotype male: 41.38S 145.57E Weindorfers Forest, Cradle Valley 900 m, 16 March 1989, at uvl, P.B. McQuillan, in ANIC. Paratypes: two males, two females labelled as for holotype; two males, 41.50S 145.35E Mount Read 1000m, 12 March 1992, P.B. McQuillan, in SAMA, MVM, TMAG. 
Other material examined. Final-instar larvae: 12 larvae, 41.38S 145.57E Weindorfer's Forest, Cradle Valley, 5 February 1989, P.B. McQuillan; 24 February 1990, A. Yen, R. Coy & P. Lillywhite, via PKD ex Athrotaxis selaginoides, in ANIC, MVM, TMAG. Two larvae, 41.50S l45.35E Mount Read 1000m, 20 January 1988, P.B. McQuillan, ex Athrotaxis selaginoides, in TMAG.
Pupae: two from Reservoir Lakes near Mt La Perouse, collected as final-instar larvae 12 March 1996, J. Ashworth, in ANIC. 
Head: with occiput mostly white interspersed with a few grey scales. Frons and palpi with subequal numbers of white and grey scales.  
Thorax: smooth scaled with grey and white scales.
Wings (Figs 1,2): Forewing whitish, infuscated towards margins with grey scales leaving the central part of the disc paler; ornamented with dark fuscous spot-like markings, an obscure sub-basal spot, an oblique double dot (sometimes single) at one-third disc, a subcostal spot at mid costa, a discal spot at two-thirds disc, three or four costal spots on distal half of wing, termen weakly spotted, scale fringe whitish. Hindwing pale whitish grey, almost white in some specimens, scale fringe white. 
Male genitalia (Figs 7,8): As for genus. 
Female genitalia (Fig. 9): As for genus.Wingspan: Male 20-22mm, female 19-20mm. 
Larva (Figs 10-14,18,19). Slender, final instar 21 mm long. Head brown with darker patches laterally and on cranium. Body whitish grey, two Broad dorsolateral dark stripes extend from mesothorax to A2, rarely developed on later segments. Prothoracic shield lightly pigmented. Pinacula on abdomen pigmented, setae fine, pigmented pale fuscous. Supranal plate weakly sclerotised. 
Distribution (Fig. 20). Athrotaxivora has been found at only three locations in far southern and western Tasmania but could be more widespread within the overall distribution of King William Pine. Nevertheless, it is apparently absent from some otherwise suitable sites, such as the conifer forest growing in the moraine below Lake Fenton at 980m in Mount Field National Park. It was also searched for without success on the upper slopes of Algonkian Mountain (42.21S l46.02E), a remote rainforest site which has been badly affected by fire in the past decade. A population of A. tasmanica occurs near the summit of Mount Read, a mineralogically prospective area outside of any conservation zone. The Mount Read area has apparently served as an environmentally benign refuge for biota since the end of the last ice age, as evidenced by the recent discovery of a 10,000-year-old clone of Huon Pine, Lagarostrobus franklini, at Lake Selina.
Biology: details of oviposition are unknown but the female has a relatively short ovipositor and presumably lays eggs directly onto the foliage. Larvae construct untidy webbing retreats 5-lOcm long on the terminal branchlets (Fig. 19) from which they venture at night to graze on the adjacent foliage. Frass is incorporated into the silken retreats of the larva. Larval damage can be fairly conspicuous, especially if associated with discoloration of the adjacent leaves. Larvae have been collected by pyrethrum knock-down techniques. Pupation occurs within the shelter, and the pupal shell is not extruded at eclosion. Adults are nocturnally active and both sexes fly to light at night.King William pine, a large fire-sensitive rainforest tree endemic in montane environments of western Tasmania (Fig. 20), is the only known foodplant of A. tasmanica. It has not been found, despite searching, on the related pencil pine A. cuppressoides or A. laxifolia, a putative hybrid between the two.


Diagnosis:
Description: see original description above.
Head:
Thorax:
Abdomen:
Food plants: foliage of King William pine, Athrotaxis selaginoides.
Flight period:
Distribution: Tasmania, Endemic.

Remarks:



Bassarodes



Bassarodes Meyrick, 1910


Bassarodes Meyrick, 1910 [Stenomidae] Descriptions Malayan Micro-lepidoptera. Trans. Ent. Soc. London 1910: 430–478 [459]. Type species: Bassarodes siriaca Meyrick, 1910 by monotypy.
Bassarodes Meyrick, 1910 [Cryptophasidae]. Fletcher, T. B., 1929, A list of generic names used for Microlepidoptera. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture of India,  11: 1-244 [31].
Bassarodes Meyrick, 1910. Common, in Nielsen, Edwards, & Rangsi, 1996, Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera, 4: i-xiv, 1-529 & CD-ROM [86].
Bassarodes Meyrick. Beccaloni, G. W., Scoble, M. J., Robinson, G. S. & Pitkin, B. (Editors). 2003. The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (LepIndex). World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/lepindex [accessed 7 April 2010].
Bassarodes Meyrick, 1910. Edwards, E. D. (2003), Xyloryctinae. Australian Faunal Directory. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/taxa/XYLORYCTINAE [accessed 13 June 2010].

Original description, Meyrick 1910
Bassarodes, n.g.
Head with appressed scales, side-tufts raised, rough, expanded behind; ocelli absent; tongue developed. Antennae ¾, in ♂ very shortly ciliated, basal joint moderately elongate, without pecten. Labial palpi very long, recurved, second joint thickened with dense scales, somewhat rough beneath, especially in ♂, terminal joint as long as second, moderate, acute. Maxillary palpi very short, filiform, appressed to tongue. Posterior tibiae with dense rough hairs above. Forewings with 2 from towards angle, 3 and 4 approximated, 8 to apex, 11 from before middle. Hindwings 1, oblong-ovate, cilia ½, 3 and 4 stalked, 5 connate, 6 and 7 parallel, 7 to apex.

Description:
Head:
Thorax:
Abdomen:

Immature stages:

Distribution: Queensland, Solomon Islands (Edwards, 2003).

Remarks: Originally described in the Stenomidae [Stenomatidae]. Fletcher (1929) included Stenomidae in the Xyloryctidae.

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Bassarodes siriaca Meyrick

Bassarodes siriaca♂ - Qld, Claudie River Lat. 12' 43'' S Long. 143' 17'' E, 19. Mar. 1985, E.D. Edwards leg. (ANIC). [AMO].



Bassarodes siriaca♀ - Qld, Claudie River, 23. Feb. 1984(ANIC).[AMO].


Bassarodes siriaca - ANIC specimens showing relative sizes. Males above, females below.


Bassarodes siriaca Meyrick, 1910 [Stenomidae] Descriptions Malayan Micro-lepidoptera. Trans. Ent. Soc. London 1910: 430–478 [459]. Syntype(s) BMNH 3♂♀, New Georgia and Choiseul Islands, Solomon Islands.
Bassarodes siriaca Meyrick [Cryptophasidae]. Fletcher, T. B., 1929, A list of generic names used for Microlepidoptera. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture of India,  11: 1-244 [31].
Bassarodes siriaca Meyrick, 1910. Common, in Nielsen, Edwards, & Rangsi, 1996, Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera, 4: i-xiv, 1-529 & CD-ROM [86].
Bassarodes siriaca Meyrick, 1910. Beccaloni, G. W., Scoble, M. J., Robinson, G. S. & Pitkin, B. (Editors). 2003. The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (LepIndex). World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/lepindex [accessed 7 April 2010].
Bassarodes siriaca Meyrick, 1910. Edwards, E. D. (2003), Xyloryctinae. Australian Faunal Directory. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/taxa/XYLORYCTINAE [accessed 13 June 2010].

Original description, Meyrick 1910
Bassarodes siriaca n. sp.
♂♀. 23-30mm. Head light ochreous-yellowish, tufts of crown suffused with dark brown. Palpi ochreous suffusedly mixed with dark brown. Thorax pale ochreous-yellowish, in ♂ with central stripe of brown suffusion, in ♀wholly suffused with brownish. Abdomen pale ochreous-yellowish, in ♀ suffused with brownish. Forewings elongate, moderate, posteriorly dilated, costa gently arched, apex rounded-obtuse, termen slightly rounded, little oblique; in ♂ pale yellowish, sometimes suffused with pale brownish on veins and margins, with second discal stigma dark brown, an oblique patch of brown suffusion between this and apex, and in one specimen a streak of dark brown suffusion along fold curved upwards beneath middle of wing; in ♀ pale ochreous suffusedly irrorated with dark brown, with a broad longitudinal median dark fuscous band, suffused and undefined towards costa, lower margin well-marked and pale-edged, curved downwards on anterior half and upwards beyond middle, terminating in tornus: cilia pale yellowish, in ♂ sometimes suffused with light brownish, in ♀ suffused with fuscous. Hindwings in ♂ light yellowish, sometimes sprinkled with fuscous towards tornus, cilia concolorous; in ♀ fuscous, cilia whitish-ochreous suffused with fuscous.
SOLOMON Is., Choiseul, New Georgia; three specimens.

Diagnosis:
Description:
Head:
Thorax:
Abdomen:
Food plants:
Flight period: February, March.
Distribution: Queensland, Solomon Islands. (Edwards, 2003).
Remarks:

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